Figure 10.1 — Force measurement techniques on the nanoscale Figure 10.1 — Force measurement techniques on the nanoscale. Main techniques for measuring forces at microscopic and nanoscopic length scales, classified according to their force resolution and the working conditions (surface/bulk) for which they are best suited: atomic force microscopy (AFM), photonic force microscopy (PFM) and total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM).Reprinted figure from Brettschneider et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 041113. Copyright (2011) by the American Physical Society.