Figure 23.4 — Optical force lithography Figure 23.4 — Optical force lithography. Manipulation and placement of nanostructures: (a) Assembly of a rhombus constructed from semiconductor CdS nanowires using HOTs. The assembly process entails nanowire translation, cutting and fusion with the substrate. (b) Placement of a In2O3 nanowire by a scanning optical tweezers to connect two branches of a circuit. (c) Deposition of gold nanoparticles on a glass substrate by HOTs: dark-field (top) and scanning electron microscope images (bottom) of a 5 × 5 pattern made of 80 nm particles.Figure (a) is reprinted from Agarwal et al., Opt. Express 13, 8906–12. Copyright (2005) The Optical Society.Figure (b) is reprinted from Lee et al., Opt. Express 17, 17491–501. Copyright (2009) The Optical Society.Figure (c) is reprinted with permission from Nedev et al., Nano Lett. 11, 5066–70. Copyright (2011) American Chemical Society.